Saskatoon Health Region
Social Determinants of Health

Updated January 2017

 

Education Levels

About the Data

One Page Summary

Definition:

Highest level of educational attainment is the highest certificate, diploma or degree completed by a person aged 25 to 64 years. In this analysis, ‘without high school diploma’ means the population who has not completed high school nor any post-secondary certificates, diplomas or degrees (number 1 below). In this analysis, ‘with a post-secondary degree’ means population having achieved a post-secondary degree, certificate or diploma (numbers 3 through 6 combined below).

The following general hierarchy used in deriving 'highest certificate, diploma or degree' is loosely tied to the 'in-class' duration of the various types of education:

  1. no certificate, diploma or degree
  2. secondary (high) school diploma or equivalent
  3. apprenticeship or trades certificate or diploma
  4. college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma
  5. university certificate or diploma below bachelor level
  6. university certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above

Calculation:

Percent no high school education = population with no certificate, diploma or degree divided by total population aged 25 to 64 years.

Percent with post-secondary degree = population with a post-secondary certificate, diploma or degree divided by total population aged 25 to 64 years.

Source:

Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

Limitations:

The National Household Survey (NHS) 2011 is voluntary and is subject to a higher non-response rate than previous census’. Based on information from other data sources, evidence of non-response bias does exist for certain populations and for certain geographic areas.

References:

Statistics Canada. Education in Canada: Attainment, field of study and location of study. National Household Survey, 2011. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2013.

Public Health Agency of Canada. What makes Canadians healthy or unhealthy? Public Health Agency of Canada 2013 [cited 2014 Mar 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/determinants-eng.php

Geographies:

Often the most reported geography is for those people living within Saskatoon Health Region boundaries. However, in some cases, those living in Saskatoon and rural areas of the Health Region are also reported. Saskatoon means those people living within city of Saskatoon boundaries. ‘Rural Saskatoon Health Region’ reflects those living within the health region boundaries, but outside city of Saskatoon boundaries. Saskatchewan and Canada are also used as comparators depending on data availability.

Employment

About the Data

One Page Summary

Definition:

Unemployed persons are referred to as, during the week of May 1 to May 7, 2011 persons without paid work or without self-employment work and were available for work and either: a) had actively looked for paid work in the past four weeks; or b) were on temporary lay-off and expected to return to their job; or c) had definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less.

Highest level of education obtained for those age 25 to 64 years and whether or not they were in the labour force during the week of May 1 to May 7, 2011.

Unemployment rate comes from the Labour Force Survey and provides more recent information than the National Household Survey. Unemployed persons are similarly defined as in the National Household Survey above, though the reference week changes each month as the Labour Force Survey is conducted monthly.

Calculation:

The percent of the population unemployed = the number of unemployed people divided by the total population in the labour force 15 years of age and over.

Source:

Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

For infographic, unemployment statistics come from the Labour Force Survey, November 2016.

Limitations:

National Household Survey (NHS) 2011 is voluntary and is subject to a higher non-response rate than previous census. Based on information from other data sources, evidence of non-response bias does exist for certain populations and for certain geographic areas.

Both the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) collect data on the labour force. There are conceptual differences between the two surveys as the LFS is a monthly survey involving around 56,000 Canadian households.

References:

Statistics Canada. National Household Survey Dictionary, 2011. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2013.

Canadian Mental Health Association. Unemployment. Canadian Mental Health Association 2014 [cited 2014 Mar 11]; Available from: URL: http://www.cmha.ca/mental-health/your-mental-health/unemployment/

Lin RL, Shah CP, Svoboda TJ. The impact of unemployment on health: A review of the evidence. CMAJ 1995; 153(5):529-540.

Geographies:

Often the most reported geography is for those people living within Saskatoon Health Region boundaries. However, in some cases, those living in Saskatoon and rural areas of the Health Region are also reported. Saskatoon means those people living within city of Saskatoon boundaries. ‘Rural Saskatoon Health Region’ reflects those living within the health region boundaries, but outside city of Saskatoon boundaries. Saskatchewan and Canada are also used as comparators depending on data availability.

Income

About the Data

One Page Summary

Definition:

Income information was collected for the population aged 15 years and older living in private households. All income received during the preceding calendar year (2010) was included, including some non-taxable income and with the following exceptions: withdrawals from Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs) and other savings plans; inheritances received; lottery winnings and lump sum insurance settlements.

Household refers to a person or a group of persons (other than foreign residents) who occupy the same private dwelling and do not have a usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada.

Calculation:

Median household income is the amount which divides the income distribution into two equal groups, half having income above that amount and half having income below that amount.

Source:

Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

Limitations:

National Household Survey (NHS) 2011 is voluntary and is subject to a higher non-response rate than previous census. Based on information from other data sources, evidence of non-response bias does exist for certain populations and for certain geographic areas. Income questions tend to have higher non-response than other items on a census, so comparisons with other surveys needs to be done with caution.

Reference:

Statistics Canada. Income composition in Canada. National Household Survey, 2011. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2013.

Public Health Agency of Canada. What makes Canadians healthy or unhealthy? Public Health Agency of Canada 2013 [cited 2014 Mar 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/determinants-eng.php

Geographies:

Often the most reported geography is for those people living within Saskatoon Health Region boundaries. However, in some cases, those living in Saskatoon and rural areas of the Health Region are also reported. Saskatoon means those people living within city of Saskatoon boundaries. ‘Rural Saskatoon Health Region’ reflects those living within the health region boundaries, but outside city of Saskatoon boundaries. Saskatchewan and Canada are also used as comparators depending on data availability.

Low Income

About the Data

One Page Summary

Definition:

Individuals are defined as having low income if the after-tax income of their household falls below 50% of the median adjusted household after-tax income in Canada in 2010. Adjustment for household sizes reflects the fact that a household’s needs increase as the number of members increase.

Calculation:

Adjusted household after-tax income is calculated using the after-tax income of a household divided by the square root of the household size. The low income threshold for a single person in 2010 in Canada was $19,840 while for a four person household it was $38,920.

Percent low income = number of individuals in low income in 2010 based on after-tax low-income measure divided by total population in private households.

Source:

Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011.

Limitations:

National Household Survey (NHS) 2011 is voluntary and is subject to a higher non-response rate than previous census’. Based on information from other data sources, evidence of non-response bias does exist for certain populations and for certain geographic areas. Low income measure is new to the NHS in 2011 so comparisons to previous census are not available. Low-income estimates from the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) compared to previous censuses show markedly different trends than those derived from other surveys and administrative data such as the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) or the T1 Family File (T1FF).

References:

Statistics Canada. Table 3.2. Low-income measures thresholds for households of Canada, 2010. Statistics Canada 2013 [Cited 2014 Mar 12]. Available from: URL: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/ref/dict/table-tableau/t-3-2-eng.cfm

Statistics Canada. Persons living in low-income neighbourhoods. National Household Survey, 2011. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2013.

Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.

Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.

Aber JL, Bennett NG, Conley DC, Li J. The effects of poverty on child health and development. Annu Rev Public Health 1997;18:463-83.

Shah CP, Kahan M, Krauser J. The health of children in low income families. CMAJ 1987; 137(6):485-490.

Geographies:

Often the most reported geography is for those people living within Saskatoon Health Region boundaries. However, in some cases, those living in Saskatoon and rural areas of the Health Region are also reported. Saskatoon means those people living within city of Saskatoon boundaries. ‘Rural Saskatoon Health Region’ reflects those living within the health region boundaries, but outside city of Saskatoon boundaries. Saskatchewan and Canada are also used as comparators depending on data availability.

Housing Affordability

About the Data

One Page Summary

Definition:

An indicator of housing affordability is the proportion of household total income that is spent on shelter costs. If occupants of a dwelling paid 30% or more of household total income towards shelter costs, housing affordability is thought to be an issue. The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the provinces agreed to use the 30% threshold to measure affordability for the purposes of defining need for social housing. Shelter costs include mortgage (or rent for tenants), electricity, heat, water, property tax/condominium fees, and fees for municipal services.

Housing prices are based on average housing prices in Saskatoon on December 31 of each calendar year.

Calculation:

Percent of households with affordability challenges = Number of households that paid 30% or more of household total income towards shelter costs divided by the total number of non-farm, non-reserve households.

Source:

Housing affordability comes from Statistics Canada, National Household Survey, 2011. Housing prices come from Saskatoon Region Association of Realtors, 2017.

Limitations:

National Household Survey (NHS) 2011 is voluntary and is subject to a higher non-response rate than previous census’. Based on information from other data sources, evidence of non-response bias does exist for certain populations and for certain geographic areas.

References:

Statistics Canada. Homeownership and shelter costs in Canada: National Household Survey, 2011. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2013.

Ontario Medical Association. Housing and health. OMA 2013 [cited 2014 Mar 10]; Available from: URL:https://www.oma.org/Resources/Documents/Housing_Health_Aug2013.pdf

Geographies:

Often the most reported geography is for those people living within Saskatoon Health Region boundaries. However, in some cases, those living in Saskatoon and rural areas of the Health Region are also reported. Saskatoon means those people living within city of Saskatoon boundaries. ‘Rural Saskatoon Health Region’ reflects those living within the health region boundaries, but outside city of Saskatoon boundaries. Saskatchewan and Canada are also used as comparators depending on data availability.